Biblio File

 

World War I
The Global Revolution

By Lawrence Sondhaus, Professor & Chair,
Department of History & Political Science
Cambridge University Press

A small-scale terrorist attack sparks conflict across the globe, with great empires racing to perfect the technology of mass homicide. In the process, the balance of world power is upended, and long-standing cultural structures are tossed to the wind.
Though the 1914–18 conflagration we now call World War I may be overshadowed in the contemporary mind by more recent conflicts, it remains a crucial turning point in human history, a catalyst for the sweeping social changes of the 20th century and the root of tensions that still trouble us today.

Professor Lawrence Sondhaus, chair of UIndy’s Department of History & Political Science, offers a fresh and wide-ranging look at the war and its ongoing impact in his new book, published in March by Cambridge University Press.When the venerable British publishing house decided to fill a gap in its catalog with a comprehensive but approachable history of the war, the task fell to Sondhaus, who holds a PhD from the University of Virginia and specializes in the naval and military history of modern Europe.“They didn’t want a book for other academics,” he says. “They wanted it to be accessible to undergrads and the general reader.”

To that end, Sondhaus includes many photos and maps to complement the narrative, along with chronologies, excerpts from personal accounts, discussion questions, and guides to key controversies and debates. Two full chapters are devoted to life on the home fronts.
What further distinguishes the book from previous histories is Sondhaus’s particular interest in Germany and Austria-Hungary, the once-mighty imperial powers at the heart of the conflict. His previous books include two volumes on the Austrian navy alone.
Thus, while most English-language accounts of World War I focus on the Western Front and the grueling battles in the French countryside, Sondhaus’s book gives equal weight to the war’s Eastern Front and its long-distance fallout in Africa, East Asia, and the Pacific, where battling nations attacked each other’s colonies and forced the locals into service as porters and combatants.

“You have enormous numbers of people fighting and dying in Africa,” Sondhaus says. “Darfur is in the book. Somalia is in the book.”
World War I was fought by land, sea, and air, using tanks, trucks, ships, submarines, airplanes, and even zeppelins, which the Germans used to conduct high-altitude raids on French and British targets. The indiscriminate bombing of London signaled that even civilians were targets in this modern approach to war. “That was a new moral barrier that was crossed,” Sondhaus says.

The “revolution” of the book’s title refers to the cascade of change that touched nearly every field of human endeavor in the war’s aftermath.In terms of political geography, the conflict ended powerful European and Turkish empires, fueled the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, spawned a wave of colonial independence movements, and left the United States as the world’s top military and economic power.

In terms of everyday life, the war had a transformative impact on labor issues, race relations, and gender roles in the Western world. In its immediate wake, for example, American women gained the right to vote and tested social mores as the flappers of the Jazz Age.
One aspect that lingers in Sondhaus’s mind is the horror of ill-prepared soldiers encountering machine guns, poison gas, and other frightening new tools of industrialized war, but he disagrees with the common view that the war’s generals proved stubborn and incompetent in the face of such changes. The pace of technological innovation was simply too fast, he says, and unprecedented bloodshed was the result.

“The thing that fascinates me about World War I is just how much of the carnage is trial-and-error warfare,” he says. “They were just making it up as they went along.”

The Door of Hope
Republican Presidents and the
First Southern Strategy, 1877–1933

By Edward O. Frantz, Associate Professor of History
University Press of Florida

The national railroad tours made by U.S. presidents in the late 19th and early 20th centuries seem now like a forgotten corner of history, but UIndy Associate Professor Ted Frantz uses them as a window on one of America’s most intriguing political shifts:
How did the Republicans, party of Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation, later become the popular choice of white Southerners who resented the civil rights movement? And how did the Democrats, party of Confederate President Jefferson Davis, gain the loyalty of most black Southerners?

To find the roots of later electoral victories by presidents Eisenhower, Nixon, and Reagan, Frantz spent years poring over news archives and other original sources on the speaking tours undertaken during the administrations of presidents Hayes, Harrison, McKinley, Roosevelt, Taft, and Hoover.

“It’s such a crucial time in American history. The Civil War is over—but what is the meaning of freedom, and for whom?” Frantz says. “The questions that the book raises are absolutely relevant today and continue to be instructive.”

Before the advent of mass media and opinion polling, railroad tours were an important means for federal officials to address voters and test new ideas. Accounts of their appearances and speeches, especially in African-American newspapers of the day, reveal how those leaders struggled in addressing the promise of freedom for black Americans—a promise Theodore Roosevelt called “the door of hope.”
Meanwhile, Republicans in particular needed to win over Southern voters in order to become a more viable national party. Early talk about guaranteeing the right to vote for all Americans gradually faded as the years went on.

“What promises are they making, and how do they shift over time?” Frantz says. “Their commitment to that ran up against changing demographics and this other desire to be not just a regional party.”

Notably, three of these “obscure, bearded presidents,” as Frantz calls them jokingly, had fought for the Union during the Civil War, risking their lives to defend America’s guarantee of freedom and dignity for all.

“Racial justice was not an abstraction to them,” he says. “They were trying to make sure that what they fought for still had meaning and significance.”

Modalities for Therapeutic Intervention
By James W. Bellew, Associate Professor,
Krannert School of Physical Therapy
(Fifth Edition; with Susan L. Michlovitz & Thomas P. Nolan Jr.)
A. Davis Company

UIndy Associate Professor James Bellew and colleagues from the field of physical therapy explore the latest research in this guide to selecting and applying various therapeutic methods.Today’s physical therapists—as well as occupational therapists, athletic trainers, and other health professionals—can choose from a range of treatment options, including cold therapy, thermotherapy, electrotherapy, hydrotherapy, electromagnetic radiation, and mechanical modalities. Evolving technology has broadened the use of the various methods, however, and new clinical evidence is always changing how those options should be considered and assessed.
The authors’ goal was to give practitioners a hands-on, problem-solving approach to making the right decisions for their clients.

“This text demystifies much of the science underlying modalities, while putting an end to myths, fallacies, and misunderstandings,” Bellew says.